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Western civilizations their history and their culture pdf

For this article’s equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern world. Western culture, throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture, and a large portion of the population of the Western hemisphere can be described as cultural Christians. Plato, along with Socrates and Aristotle, helped to western civilizations their history and their culture pdf Western philosophy. The Beatles, the best-selling band in history, continue to influence Western culture in advances in music and fashion.

Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, with the world’s first democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy, science and mathematics. Greece was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government, engineering and political organization. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. More often a country’s ideology is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. Many parts of the Eastern Roman Empire are considered Western today but were Eastern in the past. West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary.

As Europe discovered the wider world, old concepts adapted. The Greeks contrasted themselves to their Eastern neighbors, such as the Trojans in Iliad, setting an example for later contrasts between east and west. Concepts of what is the West arose out of legacies of the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all other cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity.

Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners. The Maison Carrée in Nîmes, one of the best-preserved Roman temples. It is a mid-sized Augustan provincial temple of the theocratic Imperial cult of the Empire. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language. Although Rome, like Greece, was no longer democratic, the idea of democracy remained a part of the education of citizens.

Eventually, the empire became increasingly split into a Western and Eastern part, reviving old ideas of a contrast between an advanced East, and a rugged West. Greek civilization came in contact with Jewish civilization. Two main symbols of the medieval Western civilization on one picture: the gothic St. After the fall of Rome, much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. However, this would become the centre of a new West. Europe fell into political anarchy, with many warring kingdoms and principalities.