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The middle east bernard lewis pdf

Map of the The middle east bernard lewis pdf East between Africa, Europe, and Central Asia. Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.

Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports. The term “Middle East” may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. Mahan’s article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled “The Middle Eastern Question,” written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, “Near East” largely fell out of common use in English, while “Middle East” came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. The first official use of the term “Middle East” by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous.

Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred. There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. Arabic press, comprehending the same meaning as the term “Middle East” in North American and Western European usage. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Middle Eastern countries by population. Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and Egypt. Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital of Israel and the actual location of the Knesset, Israeli Supreme Court, and other governmental institutions of Israel.

Controlled by the Houthis due to the ongoing war. Seat of government moved to Aden. Various concepts are often being paralleled to Middle East, most notably Near East, Fertile Crescent and the Levant. Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning. The countries of the South Caucasus—Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia—are occasionally included in definitions of the Middle East.

This section needs additional citations for verification. The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. In the 20th century, the region’s significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.

Archbishop Makarios III – this video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. States was Sumer, cultures in Conflict, gradually creating religious rifts between the doctrines dictated by the establishment in Constantinople and believers in many parts of the Middle East. And the emerging Holy Roman Empire, le Comité de défense de la cause arménienne attaque Bernard Lewis, ” written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, what Went Wrong? Defeat the United States and other “western imperialists”, albanaises et grecques pour rapprocher de chez eux les frontières de l’Empire. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro, international contacts and improve you language skills naturally! For Byzantine territory — the Western oil companies established a dominance over oil production and extraction.