Basic computer training manual pdf
Versions of BASIC became widespread on microcomputers in the mid-1970s and 1980s. Microcomputers usually shipped with BASIC, often in the machine’s firmware. The original BASIC language was released on May 1, 1964 by John G. Kurtz and implemented under their direction by basic computer training manual pdf team of Dartmouth College students.
One of the graduate students on the implementation team was Mary Kenneth Keller, one of the first people in the U. The acronym BASIC comes from the name of an unpublished paper by Thomas Kurtz. BASIC was designed to allow students to write mainframe computer programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. The language was based on FORTRAN II, with some influences from ALGOL 60 and with additions to make it suitable for timesharing. During this period a number of simple computer games were written in BASIC, most notably Mike Mayfield’s Star Trek. A number of these were collected by DEC employee David H. Ahl and published in a newsletter he compiled.
The introduction of the first microcomputers in the mid-1970s was the start of explosive growth for BASIC. It had the advantage that it was fairly well known to the young designers and computer hobbyists who took an interest in microcomputers. One of the first BASICs to appear was Tiny BASIC, a simple BASIC variant designed by Dennis Allison at the urging of Bob Albrecht of the Homebrew Computer Club. Almost universally, home computers of the 1980s had a ROM-resident BASIC interpreter, which the machines booted directly into. As the popularity of BASIC grew in this period, computer magazines published complete source code in BASIC for video games, utilities, and other programs. Given BASIC’s straightforward nature, it was a simple matter to type in the code from the magazine and execute the program.
When IBM was designing the IBM PC they followed the paradigm of existing home computers in wanting to have a built-in BASIC. By that time, computers running Windows 3. 1 had become fast enough that many business-related processes could be completed “in the blink of an eye” even using a “slow” language, as long as large amounts of data were not involved. Many small business owners found they could create their own small, yet useful applications in a few evenings to meet their own specialized needs. Eventually, during the lengthy lifetime of VB3, knowledge of Visual Basic had become a marketable job skill. Many other BASIC dialects have also sprung up since 1990, including the open source QB64 and FreeBASIC, inspired by QBasic, and the Visual Basic-styled RapidQ, Basic For Qt and Gambas.
Variants of BASIC are available on graphing and otherwise programmable calculators made by Texas Instruments, HP, Casio, and others. QBasic, a version of Microsoft QuickBASIC without the linker to make EXE files, is present in the Windows NT and DOS-Windows 95 streams of operating systems and can be obtained for more recent releases like Windows 7 which do not have them. BASIC came to some video game systems, such as the Nintendo Famicom. Basic variant known as Hummingbird Basic.
The ubiquity of BASIC interpreters on personal computers was such that textbooks once included simple “Try It In BASIC” exercises that encouraged students to experiment with mathematical and computational concepts on classroom or home computers. Popular computer magazines of the day typically included type-in programs. Futurist and sci-fi writer David Brin mourned the loss of ubiquitous BASIC in a 2006 Salon article as have others who first used computers during this era. In turn, the article prompted Microsoft to develop and release Small Basic. Dartmouth College celebrated the 50th anniversary of the BASIC language with a day of events on April 30, 2014.
A short documentary film was produced for the event. DATA—holds a list of values which are assigned sequentially using the READ command. NEXT—repeat a section of code a given number of times. A variable that acts as a counter is available within the loop. The condition may be evaluated before each iteration of the loop, or after. Until the specified condition is true. GOTO—jumps to a numbered or labelled line in the program.